Antidiabetic Medications

Glucose Lowering Drug Used To Treat Type 2 Diabetes

19 April of 2017

Diabetes

Diabetes is a real scourge of humanity. As of 2017, more than 400 million people in the world suffer from the ailment (that is, it affects around 8,5% of the population). According to scientists’ forecast, the prevalence of diabetes will reach 11% in 2030. Unfortunately, this ailment is incurable. Diabetes vaccine does not exist now, but scientific community is actively researching this field. However, modern medicine has developed safe medications that successfully eliminate symptoms of diabetes and allow patients to live a full life. One of such medications is Forxiga (Farxiga).

Contents

  • 1 What is Diabetes?
  • 2 How to Fight Against Diabetes?
  • 3 Forxiga – an Effective Medicine for Diabetes
    • 3.1 Indications and Contraindications for Using Forxiga
    • 3.2 Mechanism of Action
    • 3.3 How to Take Forxiga?
    • 3.4 Adverse Effects and Precautions

What is Diabetes?

Diabetes (diabetes mellitus in medical terms) is a metabolic ailment characterized by elevated glucose (sugar) rates in a patient’s blood. There are two main types of this ailment: type 1 & type 2.

types of diabetes

  • The 1st type is probably of genetic and autoimmune nature and usually occurs in young individuals & children. In people with this disease, the body lost its ability to make insulin-producing cells. It leads to significant increasing of glucose rates in the blood.
  • Type 2 diabetes amounts to approximately 90% of all cases of the ailment and usually occurs in people over 40. The main risk factors for this disease are obesity combined with a hereditary predisposition. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by relative insulin deficiency. At the initial stage of the ailment, pancreatic cells produce enough amounts of insulin (sometimes even more than necessary). Nevertheless, the body cells have decreased sensitivity to insulin. Structures that provide insulin contact with the cell are blocked, which prevents glucose from penetrating into the cell. Deficiency of sugar in cells is a signal for even greater insulin production, but this does not give an effect, and over time the synthesis of the hormone is significantly reduced.

How to Fight Against Diabetes?

Types of Diabetes

  1. Weight control. In cases of type 2 diabetes that has arisen against the background of excess weight (obesity), loss of weight is very important for bringing blood sugar rates to normal ones. To lose weight, patients need to change their diet, introduce daily moderate exercise. For individuals who are overweight, the most critical thing is to reduce the total caloric content of food consumed, which should correspond to the optimal, not the actual body weight. In this case, the degree of restriction of calories amount depends on the degree of obesity.
  2. Physical Exercises. Reviews (articles) like “how I freed myself from the diabetes” are often connected with radical lifestyle changes, proper nutrition, and sports activities. Why are physical exercises so important? First, training helps reduce blood sugar. During exercise, the energy reserve inside the cells is consumed, and they become able to absorb a new portion of sugar from the blood. Secondly, training helps to control weight. Thirdly, diabetes is a serious risk factor for cardiovascular ailments occurrence, and inadequate physical activity further enlarges the risk of developing cardiac complications. Finally, training helps to deal with stress and gives a positive attitude to patients.
  3. Special medicaments. There are several types of antidiabetic medicaments. Drugs such as metformin (Glucophage trade name), reduce the concentration of sugar in the blood by inhibiting the formation of glucose in the liver. Medicines, called sulfonylureas (Glucotrol, Amaryl, etc.), enhance the synthesis of insulin hormone in the body. Precose and Glyset oppress the absorption of carbohydrates in the intestines, so that sugar from food simply doesn’t enter the blood. The newest group of oral antidiabetic meds – SGLT2 inhibitors – is represented by Forxiga, Invokana, and others. These drugs allow the body to excrete large amounts of sugar with urine. AntiDiabetic drugs for treat type 2 diabets at AWC Canadian Pharmacy – awccanadianpharmacy.com
  4. Insulin therapy. Insulin injections are vital for persons who suffer from type 1 diabetes. In cases of the 2nd type of disease, it usually does not used. The need for the use of insulin remedies for type 2 diabetes patients emerges when there is no effect from other treatment methods and / or the ailment form is severe.

Forxiga – an Effective Medicine for Diabetes

forxiga

Forxiga is used to treat type 2 diabetes. It is an RX medicament, i.e. it is sold only by prescription. Dapagliflozin belongs to a new family of antidiabetic meds called SGLT2 inhibitors. The key active agent of the medicament is dapagliflozin. The efficiency of this drug has been demonstrated in several clinical experiments: participants experienced reduction of HbA1c (a substance indicating how well the glucose level is controlled), decrease in fasting plasma sugar levels, as well as bodyweight improvement.

Indications and Contraindications for Using Forxiga

Forxiga may be used alone for curing diabetes as addition to the physical exercises and weight-loss diet. Also it can be combined with other antidiabetic meds, such as thiazolidinediones, metformin & insulin.

Forxiga shouldn’t be taken in the following cases:

  • diabetes of the first type (the medicament is ineffective against this ailment);
  • moderate & severe renal failure;
  • end-stage of kidney disease (kidneys work below 10% of their ability);
  • pregnancy and period of breastfeeding;
  • using loop diuretics (meds against hypertension);
  • reduction of BCC (blood cell count or volume of circulating blood that may be a result of acute ailments, such as peptic ulcer);
  • age under eighteen (as the drug safety hasn’t been researched on this group of patients).

The medicament also has relative counter indications. This means that it can be taken in case of presence of such counter indications, but it should be done carefully. The list of relative counter indications includes hepatic failure of a serious degree, infections of urinary tract, risk of reduction of BCC, chronic heart failure, as well as elevated value of hematocrit (percentage of the blood erythrocytes).

Mechanism of Action

dapagliflozin

Forxiga lowers the level of the blood sugar. The reduction of the concentration of sugar in the blood occurs due to the insulin-independent decrease in glucose reabsorption inside the proximal renal tubules. That is, the medicament stimulates the excretion of excess sugar with the urine.

The elimination of glucose by the kidneys, caused by dapagliflozin, is accompanied by a loss of calories and a decrease in body weight. A lot of patients having type 1 diabetes also suffer from excess weight therefore this effect will be favorable for them.

How to Take Forxiga?

A typical dosage of the medicament is 10mg per day. If it is taken in combination with meds stimulating insulin production or with insulin injections, their doses sometimes should be reduced in order to avoid such adverse event, as hypoglycemia (low levels of sugar). The effect of the medicament depends on the function of the kidneys, so in patients with kidney diseases the effectiveness of Forxiga decreases.

Adverse Effects and Precautions

Forxiga 10mg side effects include:

  1. Infections of urinary tract. Glucose in urine can create a favorable environment for the development of infections. However, infectious processes are mild and don’t seriously affect the state of health.
  2. Ulvovaginitis, balanitis and similar infections of the genitals. Again, most of these infections are mild or moderate.
  3. Hypoglycemic events. These adverse events can occur if the medicament is combined with insulin or meds that stimulate production of this hormone.
  4. Changing of parathyroid hormone (PTH) rates. This hormone is responsible for bone metabolism. During treatment, there may be a slight increasing of serum PTH concentration. This increase is more manifested in patients with higher baseline PTH concentrations.
  5. Other possible adverse effects include increased sweating, dysuria, polyuria, thirst, constipation, etc.

It should also be noted that the medicament contains lactose. Therefore, patients suffering from lactose intolerance should not take Forxiga.

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