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Antibiotics Resistance and Its Surveillance in Canada

11 May of 2017

Contents

  • 1 The Role of Antibiotics in Diseases Treatment
  • 2 What is Antibiotic Resistance?
  • 3 Surveillance of Antibiotics Resistance in Canada
  • 4 Some Statistics on Antibiotics Use in Canada
  • 5 Ways of Prevention of Antibiotic-Resistant Infections Spreading

The Role of Antibiotics in Diseases Treatment

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Different types of microorganisms can cause infections. The most widespread causative microorganisms are viruses and bacteria. Infections caused by viruses (flu, many respiratory conditions, common cold, etc.) and bacterial infections are treated differently. Specifically, antibiotics are used only for bacterial infections treating, while their effectiveness in treating viral diseases is zero. Antibiotics must not be confused with antimicrobials, which are used for a higher range of germs suppressing.

The role of antibiotics can hardly be overestimated. They made it possible to cure a lot of diseases, which had been considered untreatable before, for example, pneumonia, brain fever, syphilis and other sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, septic fever caused by injuries, strep throat and many, many others. However, incorrect or uncontrolled use of antibiotics can result in adverse effect. One of the most serious conditions that can develop as a result of improper taking antibiotics is antibiotic resistance.

 

What is Antibiotic Resistance?

Like all microorganisms, bacteria can mutate in certain circumstances. Sometimes when antibiotics are taken for too long or in incorrect doses, or without need, bacteria causing a certain type of infection can become resistant to antibiotics. It means that they are not killed or weakened by antibiotics anymore. In practice, for a patient it results in further development of the infection, which becomes untreatable. Moreover, such mutated bacteria can be transferred to other people, who also won’t be able to cure themselves with antibiotics. In fact, anyone can catch antibiotic resistant infection in the same way as an ordinary infection through touch, coughing, kissing, through body fluids or through contaminated water, food and surfaces.

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In most countries of the world antibiotics are sold by prescription, and Canada is not an exception. Self-medication with antibiotics is not welcomed by health specialists, because only a professional doctor can define a correct type and dose of antibiotic for a particular infection treatment. Also a health professional can estimate the possible risks and decide on the need of antibiotics use in every particular case. If an infection can be cured without antibiotic, a doctor will not prescribe it.

Surveillance of Antibiotics Resistance in Canada

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The problem of antibiotics resistance in Canada is considered to be an issue of particular importance. Special bodies responsible for monitoring of antibiotics use and their effects collect and systematize all available information regarding antibiotics, for example:

  • how many different antibiotics are in Canada;
  • what cases are most frequently treated with antibiotics;
  • what the common ways of catching antibiotic resistance infections are;
  • what the most effective ways of prevention of resistant bacteria spreading are, and so on.

In Canada there are four major organizations responsible for surveillance of antibiotics resistance. They are CIPARS, CNISP, ESAG and CTLSS. The particular attention of these bodies is given to the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria in healthcare institutions and through food chain (i.e. use of antibiotics for treating animals and consuming meat of these animals by people). Every organization has its own specialization. Information is regularly gathered, updated and analyzed. Basing on the results research work is conducted. Researches are usually focused at developing new methods of identifying antibiotic-resistant bacteria and looking for measures for the prevention of this bacteria spreading.

Some Statistics on Antibiotics Use in Canada

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The vast majority of Canadian antibiotics relate to Rx drugs. In average over 20 million of prescriptions per year are issued in the country. You can check price for #1 antibiotic from Canada – Amoxil here.

Most frequently antibiotics are used for the treatment of the following conditions:

  • respiratory diseases, in particular, infections of the upper respiratory tract;
  • infections of the urinary system in men and women;
  • ear infections;
  • reproductive system infections.

Many of these infections can be easily confused with viral diseases, which are not treated with antibiotics.

Ways of Prevention of Antibiotic-Resistant Infections Spreading

Antibiotic Resistance tableAntibiotic-resistant infections are spread in completely the same way as ordinary infections. So, measures of prevention will be identical: hygiene, avoiding public gathering places, especially in the period of epidemic, avoiding contacts will sick people.

  • If you’ve been prescribed antibiotics for any reason, follow the doctor’s recommendations regarding dose, regime of taking and duration of treatment.
  • Don’t stop taking antibiotics earlier than prescribed even if you feel better.
  • Don’t overdose antibiotics.
  • Finally, don’t share antibiotics with anybody.
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